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【双语栏目】安杰教你学中文之关于如何写汉字

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中文达人何安杰(Laurence Heyes),现就读于伦敦大学亚非学院,2016年参加第十五届“汉语桥”全英大区赛,获得一等奖,随后代表英国赛区远赴北京参加全球总决赛,并进入全球30强。在2017年结束的第十六届“汉语桥”全英大区赛中,安杰作为主持人重新回到这个舞台,表现抢眼。2017年初,《英国侨报》推出了“神秘的汉字”系列街访,何安杰作为外景主持人,广受好评。因此,我们特推出【安杰教你说中文】专栏,希望通过双语形式,和更多母语非中文的汉语爱好者共同分享学习普通话的小心得。更多安杰说中文的视频,尽在《英国侨报》微信公众号哦(搜索中文名“英侨网”关注即可)!

 

 

练习写字

上一期,我和大家分享了自己学习音标的一些小经验,这一期,我们来谈谈汉字的学习。很多人认为中国的汉字很难学,但是不是这样。唯一的问题在于汉字很多,学习起来很耗时间。但是只要持之以恒,学好汉字是迟早的事。

一开始学习汉字很难,会经历很多痛苦。但是,随着时间的推移,学生们慢慢地会发现,学得越多,汉字就变得越容易记住。与此同时,学生们也要有所心理准备。学生们会忘记至少33%自己学过的汉字,这是没办法的事情。由于,只要学生们不断地练习,最终一定能学好汉字。

要不要会写?

能认得出来汉字和能写得出来汉字是两件完全不同的事情。每一个人的情况都不一样,但是我建议学生们至少做到能够认得出汉字和阅读。

学习汉字的技巧

一、不要逐个学

建议学生们用上面提到的方法学汉字,即在情景对话中或联系书中上下文学习汉字。此般,学生们就会更容易记住。

二、一字多练

建议学生们每次碰到新字,都多写几遍。

三、用尺子

建议学生们在练习写字的时候,不要看着自己刚刚写过的字,否则,练写汉字就会变成一成不变的抄写。为了避免这种情况,不看见自己刚写过的字,建议用一把尺子盖住之前的字,才能真正动脑筋写出来。若想把字写得再漂亮一点,可以使用米格纸。这种米格纸上面印有汉字的水印,学生们可以临摹。

我的一个心得是,常复习,不易忘。这对于我曾经帮过的学生来说也适用。换言之,一个学生每天把他正在学的汉字写上三遍,早中晚各一次,那他第二天能记住的就更多。

辅助学习汉字的工具

ArchChinese.com是一家非常有用的网站。此网站是非常全面的中英词典。不仅如此,网站还有一个特点,就是你每次查阅一个汉字的时候,它的界面就会出现一个大图,向你演示这个汉字的书写轨迹。Arch Chinese的网页第一幅图所示。

学生们渐渐地会发现,笔画顺序看得多了,写汉字就变得简单了。一眼看到一个字就知道该怎么写。

定期回顾

定期的回顾/复习自己最近所学过的东西是一件非常重要的事情。考虑到学生们过一段时间就会忘记学过的东西,我建议最好每5节课回顾一下之前学过的知识。复习或者再学一次有利于学生更好地记住所学内容。

手机APP

随着高级科技的普及,学习的方法也多了很多。上一辈的华人学汉字的时候唯一有的工具就是一支笔和一张纸,而现在学生可以用各种各样的软件和APP学习中文,包括汉字。

最着名的软件大概是Anki,是抽认卡软件。软件是这样子:每天你可以定目标,例如每天要复习100个汉字。然后,屏幕上会出现一个汉字,在汉字下面有几个按钮,分别为自己一下子就认得出来、自己要想一会儿才认得出来、自己忘了发音/自己不太认识、自己未见过。软件将会按照用户的回答来定该汉字何时第二次出现,然后帮你拟制一个复习计划。网络上有大量的词彙“扑克牌”,学生可以下载适合自己的“扑克牌”。当然,学生也可以创造自己的,把自己学过的字加进去。

另外一个很好用的叫做Skritter Chinese,是一款手机APP。Skritter里面有大量按照不同级别排列的词汇“扑克牌”。学生可以选择适合自己水平的扑克牌。然后,屏幕上会出现一个汉字,但与Anki不同的是,你要用手在屏幕上把字写出来。如果写对了,这关就pass了,但是写错的话,你可以接着尝试,或者放弃这一关。结束之后,APP就会知道你认识的字有哪些,也会按照这些数据来给你拟定一个复习/学习的计划。

 

和Anki一样,学生每天都要玩这个游戏,但是它比Anki好的点有两个:一、学生要在手机得的屏幕上写汉字。通过玩这个APP学生可以学会如何写字,而Anki只是帮助学生认出汉字;二、手机比电脑方便携带。我们这一代人随时随地都有手机在身上,所以学生每逢有零碎时间,不管自己在哪,我们这一代人随时随地把手机揣在身上,多以一旦有零碎时间,不管身在哪里,都可以掏出手机,玩上几分钟的认字游戏。

 

Practising Chinese Characters

Many people believe that Chinese characters are difficult, but that isn't actually the case. The only problem with Chinese characters is that learning Chinese characters takes a lot of time. However, so long as students persevere, they will eventually master Chinese characters.

 

At the beginning, studying Chinese characters is very difficult, almost painful. However, in time students will find that the more you learn, the easier it becomes to remember. On top of this, students should also be aware that they will forget at least 33% of what they learn, there is nothing they can do about that. Because of this, students should regularly revise what they have learn recently. In short, so long as students keep practising, things will eventually fall into place.

 

Do I Need To Be Able To Write Chinese Characters?

Because able to recognise Chiense characters, and being able to write Chinese characters are two very different things. Everybody has difficult needs, but I recommend that student are at least able to recognise characters, and be able to read.

Tricks For Studying Characters

1 - Don't learn they one by one.

I suggest that students use the study method mentioned above to learn Chinese characters, that is to learn them from context. By doing this students will find that they have an easier time remembering the characters.

2 – Write each character many times.

Every time students come across a new character, they should write it out many times.

3 – Use a ruler

When students are practising writing Chinese characters, I recommend that they try their hardest not to look at the character that they have just written, otherwise the whole exercise just becomes copying out what you have just written. In order to avoid looking at what you have just looked at, I suggest that students put a ruler over what they have just written so that they can't see it, they need to really think to be able to write the character. If students want to make their characters nicer, they can use something called “米格紙”. Students can use sheets of 米格紙 that have watermarks of the characters on them, and then trace the characters.

 

Something that I have learnt from experience is that the more often I review what I have learnt, the slower I will forget things. This is true, too, for the students that I have helped. If students write the characters that they are learning three times a day, once in the morning, once at lunch time and once in the evening, then the next day the student will remember more. Even if the student writes each characters only three times, I will still remember more.

Recourse For Writing Characters

ArchChinese.com is a really useful website. The website is a very comprehensive dictionary. However, it has another feature that, that is when you look up a characters, a picture will appear on your screem that will show you how to write the character. The website looks like this:

Student will slowly find that, after watching many clips about how to write characters, it will become easier to know how to write them, especially in terms of the stroke order. After seeing many clips, students will know how to write a character up first glance.

Revising Regularly

Regularly revising what one has learnt recently is very important. Given that students will forget what they have learnt after a period of time, I suggest that studuents review all of what they have learning after studying 5 lessons. Reviewing what students have learnt, or relearning it a second time will make it easier for students to remember what they have learnt.

Mobile Apps

Following the improvement in technology, there are now many more ways of studying than before. The previous generations had only pens and paper to study Chinese characters, while now studuents can use all types of apps to study Chinese, including Chinese characters.

 

The most famous piece of software is Anki, which is a piece of flashcard software. The software words like this: every day students can set a goal, for example today the student wants to review 100 charactes. Then, one by one, 100 characters will appear on the screen. Underneath every character, there will be a few buttons, one saying “I recognised this character immediately”, one saying “I have to think for a second before I could remember what it was”, “I have forgotten it a bit/forgotton the pronunciation/forgotten the meaning, I don't really know this character” and “I have never seen this character before”. According to your answers, the software will decide when these characters will appear for a second time, thereby creating a study plan for you. There are many “decks” on the internet. Students can download one that suits them and use that. Or, of course, students can make their own.

 

Another very useful piece of software is the phone app “Skritter Chinese”. Skritter Chinese is an app for studying characters. It is very similar to Anki in the sence that it has many different “decks”, which are split into different levels. Students can select a deck suitable for their level. Then a character will appear on the screen, however, differently to Anki, students need to use their finger to write the character on the screen. If students write it correctly, then they pass this round, if they write it incorrectly, then students can try again or give up. After the game finishes, the app will know which characters you know and which you don't, and will create a study plan for you based on this. Like Anki, students should play the game every day. However, Skritter is better than Anki is two ways. Firstly, students needs to write. Students can learn to write through using the app, while they will only learn to recognise characters through using Anki. Secondly, phones are more convient to carry around. Nowadays we all always have our phones on us, so whenever we have dead time, regardless of where we are, we can always play the game for a few minutes.(作者:Laurence Heyes(何安杰);实习记者叶璐对本文亦有贡献)